Europe|Erdogan Triumphs After Coup Attempt, but Turkey's Fate Is Unclear – New York Times

ISTANBUL — Standing atop a bus outside his mansion in Istanbul on Saturday night, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, victorious after putting down a coup attempt by renegade factions of the military, told his followers, “We only bow to God.”

The symbolism was stark. The informal rally harked back to his days as an up-by-the-bootstraps populist and Islamist leader who often spoke from the tops of buses. And his message, cloaked in the language of Islam, underscored how much Turkey has changed in recent decades.

Members of the military, once the guardians of the country’s secular traditions who successfully pulled off three coups last century, were being rounded up and tossed in jail, and other perceived enemies were being purged from the state bureaucracy.

The Islamists, meanwhile, were dancing in the streets.

That is where, Mr. Erdogan said on Sunday, they would remain.

“This week is important,” he told a crowd gathered at Istanbul’s Fatih Mosque for a funeral for a person killed in the violence over the weekend. “We will not leave the public squares. This is not a 12-hour affair.”

The coup attempt seems to have been decisively quashed, with nearly 6,000 military personnel in custody. Funerals for many of the at least 265 people who died in clashes were taking place across Turkey on Sunday.

Now the country is left to consider what the lasting consequences of the uprising will be. While Mr. Erdogan has fended off a coup, the most urgent question is this: Has he emerged even more powerful, or is he now a weakened leader who must accommodate his opponents?

That much of the country, including those who have bitterly opposed his government, stood against a military coup as a violation of democracy has raised hopes that Mr. Erdogan will seize the moment to reach across Turkey’s many political divides and unite the country.

Yet as the weekend progressed, it was becoming clearer that for Mr. Erdogan and his religiously conservative followers, the moment was a triumph of political Islam more than anything else.

While secular and liberal Turks generally opposed the coup, it was Mr. Erdogan’s supporters who flooded the streets and gathered at Istanbul’s airport Saturday morning to push out the occupying army. They mostly yelled religious slogans and chants in support of Mr. Erdogan, not of democracy itself.

Interactive Feature | The Arc of a Coup Attempt in Turkey Here is a visual timeline of the country’s violent and chaotic insurrection.

After Mr. Erdogan’s speech on Saturday, thousands of his supporters marched down Istiklal Street in Istanbul to Taksim Square, mostly waving Turkish flags and shouting in support of their president.

It felt like a rollicking street carnival. Women in head scarves filled the square, a truck played a song about Mr. Erdogan, and passing motorists honked and waved flags.

That they were able to gather in public at all was significant, ample evidence that Turkey is, these days, for Mr. Erdogan and his supporters.

When other groups, like gay and lesbian organizations or labor unions, try to gather in public spaces in central Istanbul, the streets are sealed off. Armored vehicles with water cannons suddenly materialize, as do police officers with tear gas canisters.

“It was nice here today,” said Ali Tuysuz, 19, who was selling watermelon slices on Saturday in Taksim. “People are happy and buying watermelon. My tray was emptied three times. President Erdogan will protect the country.”

Map | Turkey

The mosques’ role in mobilizing citizens to gather in the streets as the coup was unfolding was decisive, but it nonetheless unsettled many secular Turks. They called it a historic sidestep of Turkey’s secular principles, in which religion is meant to be separate from politics.

On Sunday, Turkey’s nearly 85,000 mosques, in unison, blared from their loudspeakers a prayer traditionally recited for martyrs who have died in war and called for people to continue to rally against the plotters of the coup.

“Most of the people who went out in the streets to oppose the coup d’état did not use democratic language,” said Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, the director of the Ankara office of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, a research organization.

“There are people for whom Islam plays a big role in their lives in Turkey,” he added. “And there are people for whom Islam plays no role.”

As Turks waited to see in which direction their mercurial and powerful leader would steer the country in the wake of the coup attempt, Mr. Erdogan struck some conciliatory notes on Sunday. Yet he has also raised the possibility that Turkey would reinstate the death penalty, which it had abolished as a part of its pursuit to join the European Union.

“If they have guns and tanks, we have faith,” said Mr. Erdogan, who also attended a funeral of a friend who was killed, and was seen crying. “We are not after revenge. So let us think before taking each step. We will act with reason and experience.”

Nigar Goksel, a senior Turkey analyst for the International Crisis Group, said there were two possible directions. “Either Erdogan utilizes this incident to redesign institutions in Ankara to his own benefit,” she said, “or he takes the opportunity with the solidarity that was extended to him by the opposition and different segments of society to reciprocate by investing more genuinely in rule of law and legitimate forms of dissent.”

Mr. Erdogan’s history suggests the latter possibility is unlikely. Each time he has faced a challenge to his power, from street protests three years ago to a corruption investigation that went after his inner circle, he has sidelined his enemies and become more autocratic.

Already, even as the government has arrested thousands of soldiers and officers who allegedly took part in the failed coup, there were signs that it was using the moment to widen a crackdown on perceived enemies. Alongside the military, the government also dismissed thousands of judges, who seemingly had no role to play in a military revolt.

“Now the government has a free hand to design the bureaucracy as they like, and they will,” Mr. Unluhisarcikli said. “All in all, Turkey will become a country where power is more consolidated and dissent will be more difficult.”

Interactive Feature | Today’s Headlines: European Morning Get news and analysis from Europe and around the world delivered to your inbox every day in the European morning.

As the purge of the military continued on Sunday, one of those arrested was Gen. Bekir Ercan Van, the chief of Incirlik Air Base, from which the United States military flies missions over Iraq and Syria against the Islamic State. Over the weekend, General Van approached American officials seeking asylum but was refused, according to a person with knowledge of the matter who spoke anonymously because of the sensitive nature of the subject.

The Greek prime minister, Alexis Tsipras, told Mr. Erdogan that the government would swiftly examine asylum claims by eight Turkish officers who fled to northern Greece in a helicopter and were detained on charges of illegal entry. Turkey has demanded their extradition.

As the drama of the coup attempt played out Friday and into Saturday morning, it looked for a moment as if Mr. Erdogan was on the verge of being toppled from power. The president spoke to the nation via the FaceTime app on his iPhone after he narrowly escaped being captured by mutinous soldiers, who arrived in a helicopter at a seaside hotel where he was vacationing — just after he had departed.

Then, around 3:30 a.m., he landed in Istanbul, after a dangerous flight undertaken while the plotters still had fighter jets in the air — the surest sign that the revolt was failing.

But more than his dramatic arrival at the Istanbul airport, his confident speech on Saturday on top of the bus seemed to emphatically declare that he was back in charge.

Celebrations by his supporters continued on Sunday, with jubilant crowds marching through the streets of Istanbul.

“Look around you,” one of the supporters, Eytan Karatas, 37, a mechanic, said. “Look at these people. We are the real soldiers of this country, and we have a chief.”

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Politics|On Eve of GOP Convention, Law and Order Takes the Floor – New York Times

CLEVELAND — The attack on police officers in Baton Rouge, La., cast a grim mood over the opening of the Republican National Convention here, as Donald J. Trump responded to the killings with a stark warning that the country was falling apart.

A string of shootings targeting police officers, as well as the recent killings of two black men by police officers in Minnesota and Louisiana, had already pushed gun violence and social unrest to the center of the presidential campaign. Mr. Trump has campaigned on the theme of “law and order” since the assassination this month of five police officers in Dallas, and he is likely to amplify that message in the coming days.

Within hours of the killings on Sunday, in which three law enforcement officers were fatally shot and several others were wounded, Mr. Trump declared that the nation had become a “divided crime scene” and said that the Islamic State was watching as Americans murdered police officers. After President Obama issued a call for calm, Mr. Trump jabbed on Twitter that Mr. Obama “doesn’t have a clue.”

The presumptive Republican presidential nominee has long battled criticism of his volcanic temper and questions about his temperament and readiness for the presidency, and it was unclear if a thunderous response to the shooting in Louisiana will help allay voters’ concerns. While Republicans often run on law-and-order themes, an indelicate approach could carry considerable danger at a moment of such unusual political instability.

In Cleveland, the killings of the police have set a tense atmosphere for the convention: Well before the bloodshed in Baton Rouge, organizers were preparing extensively for mass demonstrations and potential unrest.

“This has got everybody on edge,” said Tony Perkins, a former state legislator from Baton Rouge who is the leader of the Family Research Council, a conservative group. “The nation is in shock. If it were an isolated incident, probably not so much so, but this is the second in two weeks.”

Anxiety about security in Cleveland grew throughout the day on Sunday, as an official with a police union in the city urged Gov. John Kasich, a Republican, to enact restrictions on gun rights around the convention zone as an additional safety precaution. Mr. Kasich’s office rejected the idea as legally impossible.

Roger F. Villere Jr., the chairman of the Louisiana Republican Party, said word of the attack in Baton Rouge early Sunday had sent a shudder through the state’s delegation in Cleveland. Mr. Villere, whose party office is in Baton Rouge, said he had been attending church on Sunday morning in suburban Mayfield, Ohio, when text messages and phone calls began pouring into his phone.

Many members of the Louisiana delegation had close ties to law enforcement, Mr. Villere said, and they would seek to put together a memorial event or moment of prayer this week.

A sense of loyalty to law enforcement has pervaded the convention: On Saturday night and on Sunday in Cleveland’s Fourth Street district, restaurant patrons seated on the sidewalk repeatedly broke into applause for the phalanxes of police officers who filed down the street on foot and on bicycles.

And the convention was likely to begin with a trumpeting of support for police officers. Convention organizers said on Sunday that the theme of the first day, Monday, would be “Make America Safe Again.”

Jeff Larson, the convention’s chief executive, said in a news conference that a leading speaker would be Rudolph W. Giuliani, whom he described as “the law-and-order mayor of New York.”

Mr. Giuliani has been a forceful critic of the Black Lives Matter movement and has been outspoken in his defense of law enforcement practices over the last few weeks.

Graphic | In Preparation for Convention Protests, Half Of Cleveland’s Downtown Will Be Under Restrictions How the host cities are regulating protests and security zones around the convention centers.

Mr. Trump was not slated to speak until later in the week, but on Sunday he embraced even more tightly a dire message about social disorder.

After spending the first part of the day lobbing insults at his political rivals through social media, Mr. Trump abruptly shifted his posture after the attack in Baton Rouge, dropping his customary complaints about television news coverage and taunts directed at Hillary Clinton and Elizabeth Warren.

In an afternoon message posted to Facebook, Mr. Trump expressed grief over the loss of life. Without elaborating, he said the violence stemmed from a national leadership vacuum.

“How many law enforcement and people have to die because of a lack of leadership in our country?” he said. “We demand law and order.”

After the release of a carefully worded statement, Mr. Trump shared words of hot anger on Twitter, saying that the country was “divided and out of control.”

In downtown Cleveland, security precautions were everywhere: Tall metal barriers lined the roads around the Quicken Loans Arena, where Mr. Trump was scheduled to receive the Republican nomination on Thursday. With only light afternoon traffic in the vicinity of the convention, police officers and Secret Service agents seemed on some corners to outnumber pedestrians.

The first protests on Sunday were relatively subdued. In one park in eastern Cleveland, about 100 protesters gathered — alongside nearly as many members of the media — from groups that included Black Lives Matter, Code Pink and a pro-Palestinian organization.

Cleveland has assigned about 500 police officers specifically to handle the convention, and it has brought in thousands more officers to help, from departments as distant as California and Texas.

But some local officials have expressed concern about the possibility of violence owing to Ohio’s open-carry gun laws. Though demonstrators and others in the convention district have been barred from possessing a range of items, including gas masks, there was no prohibition on the brandishing of firearms.

On Sunday, the president of Cleveland’s police union called for additional measures to protect the security of the event, and urged Mr. Kasich to suspend open-carry gun rights. The governor’s office said Mr. Kasich did not have “the power to arbitrarily suspend federal and state constitutional rights or state laws.”

There was little evidence of firearms around the convention center, though journalists swarmed a lone man, Steve Thacker, who wandered into Public Square, a few blocks away, with a semiautomatic rifle strapped to his back and a handgun at his side.

In addition to Mr. Giuliani, the Trump campaign and convention organizers have announced the names of several prominent convention speakers who were closely identified with law enforcement. Among them was David Clarke Jr., the sheriff of Milwaukee County, Wis., and an ardent advocate for gun rights, who will speak on Monday.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey, who ran for the Republican presidential nomination on his own law-and-order message, was also scheduled to speak.

But in Baton Rouge, Woody Jenkins, the Trump campaign’s state chairman in Louisiana, said he was unsure how closely the national political debate would touch the community. Mr. Jenkins, a newspaper editor and local Republican leader, said he had seen a “tremendous outpouring of brotherhood” in Baton Rouge over the past few weeks, and little mention of the presidential race.

Mr. Trump’s “message of supporting law and order, I think, is a good one,” Mr. Jenkins said. “And I think the message of, ‘We want justice and peace,’ from a lot on the Democratic side — that’s good as well. Why can’t we have both?”

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Baton Rouge Shooting Jolts a Nation on Edge – New York Times

BATON ROUGE, La. — A gunman fatally shot three law enforcement officers and wounded three others here on Sunday before being killed in a shootout with the police. The attack’s motive was unclear as of Sunday evening, leaving an anxious nation to wonder whether the anger over recent police shootings had prompted another act of retaliation against officers.

What was clearer were the waves of worry that rushed across the United States as sketchy details emerged of a bloody melee Sunday morning on a workaday stretch of highway in Louisiana’s capital — a city that had already been rocked by the police shooting on July 5 of a black man, a purported murder plot against the police that was apparently foiled, and many racially charged nights of protest and rage.

Some details about the gunman began to emerge late Sunday: Officials identified him as Gavin Long, an African-American military veteran. According to military records released by the Marine Corps, Mr. Long served as a data network specialist and was a sergeant when he left the Marines in 2010. He enlisted in his hometown, Kansas City, Mo., in 2005, and was deployed to Iraq from June 2008 to January 2009, his records show. They also show a number of commendations, including the Good Conduct Medal.

Around the country, political leaders, police officers and activists focused their attention, and their mourning, on the slain officers. They also sought to calm the tensions that welled up this month over the killings of black men by the police and the retaliatory violence directed at officers, including the July 7 killings of five officers in downtown Dallas, carried out by a black man who said he wanted to kill white police officers.

Interactive Feature | The Victims The three officers shot and killed on Sunday morning in Baton Rouge, La. Three others were wounded.

Just five days earlier, President Obama was in Dallas for a memorial service, and on Sunday afternoon he was at the White House, again addressing the nation after an assault on officers. He said the killings were “an attack on all of us.”

“We have our divisions, and they are not new,” he said, noting that the country was probably in store for some heated political speech during the 2016 Republican National Convention this week in Cleveland.

“Everyone right now focus on words and actions that can unite this country rather than divide it further,” the president said. “We need to temper our words and open our hearts, all of us.”

Gov. John Bel Edwards of Louisiana said: “The violence, the hatred just has to stop.”

State and local officials speaking at a news conference here Sunday afternoon did not address whether the law enforcement officers who were killed and wounded — three members of the Baton Rouge Police Department and three deputies from the East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff’s Department — had been lured to the scene. Police officials said there had been a call about a man carrying a gun.

Officials initially believed that there might have been other possible suspects involved in the attack, but the superintendent of the Louisiana State Police, Col. Michael D. Edmonson, said at a news conference that it was the act of a lone gunman.

“There is not an active shooter scenario in Baton Rouge,” he said.

Colonel Edmonson said a call came in to police dispatch early Sunday reporting “a guy carrying a weapon” in the vicinity of the Hammond Aire Plaza shopping center on Airline Highway — a commercial thoroughfare dotted with car washes, car dealerships and chain stores that cuts through a leafy residential neighborhood. It is also about a mile from the Baton Rouge Police Department headquarters, where protesters had held numerous rallies since July 5, when the police here fatally shot an African-American man, Alton B. Sterling, after a confrontation in front of a convenience store.

Around 8:40 a.m., law enforcement officers observed the man, wearing all black and holding a rifle, outside a beauty supply store, the colonel said. In the next four minutes, there were reports of shots fired and officers struck, said Colonel Edmonson, whose agency will take the lead on the investigation, helped by local and federal investigators.

Mark Clements, who lives near the shopping center, said in a telephone interview that he was in his backyard when he heard shots ring out. “I heard probably 10 to 12 gunshots go off,” he said. “We heard a bunch of sirens and choppers and everything since then.”

Interactive Feature | Live Updates: Baton Rouge Police Officers Shot

Avery Hall, 17, who works at a nearby carwash, said he was on his way to work when the gunfire erupted. ”I was about to pull in at about 8:45, and we got caught in the crossfire,” he said. “I heard a lot of gunshots — a lot. I saw police ducking and shooting. I stopped and pulled into the Dodge dealership. I got out and heard more gunshots. We ducked.”

On the police dispatch radio, a voice could be heard shouting: “Shots fired! Officer down! Shots fired. Officer down! Got a city officer down.”

Around 8:48 a.m., officers fired at the suspect, killing him, Colonel Edmonson said.

On Sunday afternoon, officials said that two of the slain officers were Baton Rouge city police officers, and that the third was from the Sheriff’s Department. One city police officer and two sheriff’s deputies were wounded, including one who was in critical condition.

The shooting was the latest episode in a month of violence and extraordinary racial tension in the country. The night after the police shooting of Mr. Sterling, who was selling CDs outside the convenience store here, a black man was killed by the police during a traffic stop in a St. Paul suburb. The next night, five police officers were killed by the gunman in Dallas.

Violence against the police, Governor Edwards said, “doesn’t address any injustice, perceived or real.”

He continued, “It is just an injustice in and of itself.”

Speaking at the news conference, the police chief here, Carl Dabadie Jr., called the shooting “senseless” and asked people to pray for the officers and their families.

“We are going to get through this as a family,” he said, “and we’re going to get through this together.”

The police in Baton Rouge had in recent days announced that they were investigating a plot by four people to target police officers, and they cited the threat to explain why their presence at local protests, which had been light at first, had grown heavy.

The police said a 17-year-old was arrested this month after running from a burglary of the Cash American Pawn Shop in Baton Rouge. He and three others, including a 12-year-old arrested on Friday, were believed to have broken into the pawnshop through the roof. It was unclear whether the burglary was connected to Sunday’s shooting.

Chief Dabadie told reporters at the time that the 17-year-old had told the police “that the reason the burglary was being done was to harm police officers.”

The explanation, however, was met with skepticism on social media sites, where many people believed the report was concocted by the police to justify their militarized response to the protests after the death of Mr. Sterling.

“That was bull — it was a scare tactic to calm things down,” Arthur Reed of Stop the Killing, the group that first released the video of Mr. Sterling’s shooting, said on Sunday. “And it worked. I ain’t going out there if people are going to be out there trying to kill police.”

Graphic | How the Shooting of Police Officers in Baton Rouge Unfolded A minute-by-minute account of the shooting, with maps and video.

The intense protests had started to lose steam. Sima Atri, a social justice lawyer who represented some of the protesters who were arrested last weekend, said earlier in the week that many protesters were afraid to hit the streets after the authorities’ aggressive approach last weekend, which included nearly 200 arrests. (Nearly 100 charges were dropped on Friday.)

A protest on Saturday afternoon attracted less than a dozen people, who huddled on the side of the road under a tent to escape the blazing sun and flashed signs at passing cars. They were mostly white; large protests shortly after Mr. Sterling’s death had been nearly all black.

Louisiana has lately taken a harder line to defend its police officers, who this year will become a protected class under the state’s hate crimes law.

The killing of the officers on Sunday occurred as hundreds of police officers trained in crowd-control tactics braced for protests outside the Republican National Convention in Cleveland.

Interactive Feature | Breaking News Emails Sign up to receive an email from The New York Times as soon as important news breaks around the world.

Cat Brooks, the co-founder of the Anti Police-Terror Project, cautioned against criticizing activists after the attack on Sunday in Baton Rouge.

“I think anytime that there’s a loss of life — black, white, police officer, otherwise — it’s cause for us to take a moment and be sad about that life,” she said. “And I think we have to be really careful about where these shootings of police officers steer the conversation. I think it’s absurd to insinuate that a movement that is doing nothing more than demanding that the war on black life come to an end is in any way responsible for these police officers getting shot.”

After the shooting in Dallas, Stephen Loomis, the president of the Cleveland Police Patrolmen’s Association, urged people not to bring their guns anywhere near Cleveland’s downtown during the convention because officers were in a “heightened state.”

In Cleveland on Sunday, Steve Thacker, 57, of Westlake, Ohio, stood in the city’s Public Square holding a semiautomatic AR-15-style assault rifle — allowed under the state’s open-carry law — as news broke that several officers had been killed in Baton Rouge. When asked about Mr. Loomis’s comments and the Baton Rouge shooting,Mr. Thacker said that despite the attack, he wanted to make a statement and show that people could continue to openly carry their weapons.

“I pose no threat to anyone. I’m an American citizen. I’ve never been in trouble for anything,” said Mr. Thacker, an information technology engineer. “This is my time to come out and put my two cents’ worth in, albeit that it is a very strong statement.”

Correction: July 17, 2016

Because of an editing error, an earlier version of this article misstated a part of the service record of Gavin Long. He served six months in Iraq, not a year.

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Crackdown Following Failed Coup in Turkey Raises Concerns – New York Times

ISTANBUL — Following a failed coup against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the government moved swiftly Sunday to shore up his power and remove those perceived as an enemy, saying it has detained 6,000 people.

The crackdown targeted not only generals and soldiers, but a wide swath of the judiciary that has sometimes blocked Erdogan, raising concerns that the effort to oust him will push Turkey even further into authoritarian rule.

Friday night’s sudden uprising by a faction of the military appeared to take the government — and much of the world — by surprise.

The plotters sent warplanes firing on key government installations and tanks rolling into major cities, but it ended hours later when loyal government forces regained control of the military, and civilians took to the streets in support of Erdogan. At least 294 people were killed and more than 1,400 wounded, the government said.

On Sunday, Prime Minister Binali Yildirim said the coup had failed and life has returned to normal.

“Another calamity has been thwarted,” Yildirim said in Ankara after visiting state TRT television, which had been seized by soldiers supporting the coup. “However, our duty is not over. We shall rapidly conduct the cleansing operation so that they cannot again show the audacity of coming against the will of the people.”

Yildirim said those involved with the failed coup “will receive every punishment they deserve.” Erdogan suggested that Turkey might reinstate capital punishment, which was legally abolished in 2004 as part of the country’s bid to join the European Union.

Even before the weekend chaos in Turkey, the NATO member and key Western ally in the fight against the Islamic State group had been wracked by political turmoil that critics blamed on Erdogan’s increasingly heavy-handed rule. He has shaken up the government, cracked down on dissent, restricted the media and renewed fighting with Kurdish rebels.

Speaking to a large crowd of supporters in front of his Istanbul residence Sunday evening, Erdogan responded to frequent calls of “We want the death penalty!” by saying: “We hear your request. In a democracy, whatever the people want they will get.”

Grief-stricken relatives in Ankara and Istanbul buried those killed in the coup attempt, and prayers for the dead were read simultaneously at noon Sunday at Turkey’s 85,000 mosques. Erdogan attended a funeral for his campaign manager Erol Olcak and his 16-year-old son, Abdullah Tayyip Olcak. The president wept and vowed to take the country forward in “unity and solidarity.”

The government’s announcement that 6,000 people had been detained — including three top generals and hundreds of soldiers — suggested a wide conspiracy. Observers said the scale of the crackdown, especially against the judiciary, indicated the government was taking the opportunity to further consolidate Erdogan’s power.

“The factions within the military opposed to Erdogan who did this just gave him carte blanche to crack down not only on the military but on the judiciary,” said Aykan Erdemir, a former lawmaker from the main opposition party and now a senior fellow at the U.S.-based Foundation for Defense of Democracies. “The coup plotters couldn’t have helped Erdogan more.”

The rapid suppression of the putsch was greeted by Turks across the political spectrum with opposition parties joining to condemn it. In a half-dozen cities, tens of thousands marched throughout the day after officials urged them to defend democracy and back Erdogan, Turkey’s top politician for 13 years.

At nightfall, flag-waving crowds rallied in Istanbul’s Taksim Square, Ankara’s Kizilay Square and elsewhere.

The Yeni Safak newspaper used the headline “Traitors of the country,” while the Hurriyet newspaper declared “Democracy’s victory.”

“Just a small group from Turkish armed forces stood up against our government … but we, the Turkish nation, stand together and repulse it back,” said Gozde Kurt, a 16-year-old student at a morning rally in Istanbul.

The failed coup and the subsequent crackdown followed moves by Erdogan to reshape both the military and the judiciary. He had indicated a shake-up of the military was imminent and had also taken steps to increase his influence over the judiciary.

This month, parliament approved a controversial bill to reform two Turkish high courts, which allows the government to dismiss hundreds of administrative and high appeals court judges and allow Erdogan to replace them with judges loyal to him. Parliament passed the bill even as authorities were grappling with a deadly triple suicide bomb attacks at Istanbul’s Ataturk Airport.

The opposition had appealed the legislation to the high court unsuccessfully, but Erdogan has not yet signed it into law. Two Constitutional Court justices were among the thousands of members of the judiciary it had detained Saturday.

It is not clear how the post-coup purge will affect the judiciary, how the government will move to replace the dismissed judges and prosecutors, or where the trials for those detained would be held.

The government alleged the coup conspirators were loyal to moderate U.S.-based cleric Fethullah Gulen, whom Erdogan has often accused of trying to overthrow the government.

Gulen, who lives in Saylorsburgh, Pennsylvania, espouses a philosophy that blends a mystical form of Islam with democracy. He is a former Erdogan ally turned bitter foe who has been put on trial in absentia in Turkey, where the government has labeled his movement a terrorist organization. He strongly denies the government’s charges.

At a funeral in Istanbul, Erdogan vowed to “clean all state institutions of the virus” of Gulen’s supporters. He also called on Washington to extradite Gulen.

At two weekend news conferences, Gulen strongly denied any role in or knowledge of the coup.

“As someone who suffered under multiple military coups during the past five decades, it is especially insulting to be accused of having any link to such an attempt,” he said.

Gulen even raised the possibility the coup attempt had been staged, saying it had “all the signs of a movie scenario,” in order to purge the military of Erdogan’s opponents.

In recent years, the government has moved to purge the police and judiciary of Gulen followers. The military, founded on secularist ideals, has been a staunch opponent of Gulen.

Gulen told reporters he did not fear extradition.

“This doesn’t worry me at all. But I’m not going to do anything that will harm my dignity or that will go against my dignity,” he said.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said the United States would entertain an extradition request for Gulen, but Turkey would have to present “legitimate evidence that withstands scrutiny.” So far, officials have not offered evidence he was involved.

Ziya Meral of the Centre for Historical Analysis and Conflict Research, a civilian think tank affiliated with the British Defense Ministry, said the motives of the plotters remain unclear, but the allegations against Gulen were dubious.

“I am more inclined toward a network within the armed services who were disturbed about where Turkey is heading,” she said.

The allegations will only add to the pressure on the U.S. government and signal new uncertainty in U.S.-Turkish relations.

The putsch attempt led to a temporary halt to air operations by the U.S.-led coalition against the Islamic State group in neighboring Syria and Iraq from Turkey’s Incerlik air base, but the Pentagon said Sunday that Turkey has reopened its airspace.

A Turkish government official said that the commander of the base, Gen. Bekir Ercan Van, was among those detained.

The state-run Anadolu Agency also said authorities issued a warrant for the arrest of Erdogan’s top military aide, Col. Ali Yazici, although it wasn’t clear what role he may have played.

The agency said 70 generals and admirals, including former Gen. Akin Ozturk, an air Force commander, were detained. Of the generals and admirals brought before court, 11 were put under arrest as of Sunday night and the rest are awaiting processing.

Security forces arrested a group of alleged plotters who had been holding out at one of Istanbul’s airports Sunday, a Turkish official said. In addition, Anadolu reported that seven people, including a colonel, were detained at an air base in the central Anatolian city of Konya.

Gen. Umit Dunda said at least 104 conspirators were among those killed, describing them as mainly officers from the air force, the military police and armored units.

Security forces rounded up 52 more military officers for alleged links to the coup. Anadolu said a detention order has been issued for 110 judges and prosecutors in Istanbul alone for alleged involvement with the group responsible for the coup.

The suspects are being charged with “membership in an armed terrorist organization” and “attempting to overthrow the government of the Turkish Republic using force and violence or attempting to completely or partially hinder its function.” The agency said 58 homes of prosecutors and judges have been searched.

Officials also said 2,745 judges and prosecutors have been dismissed.

Another 149 police were detained in Ankara, according to Anadolu, citing the office of the city’s governor.

___

Fraser reported from Ankara. Dominique Soguel, Emrah Gurel, Bram Janssen and Cinar Kiper in Istanbul and Mucahit Ceylan in Ankara, Desmond Butler in Washington and Michael Rubinkam in Saylorsburg, Pennsylvania also contributed.

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Three Officers Killed and Several Wounded in Baton Rouge Shooting – New York Times

BATON ROUGE, La. — Three law enforcement officers were fatally shot and three others wounded on Sunday in Baton Rouge, La., the East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff’s Office said, less than two weeks after a black man was killed by the police here, sparking nightly protests.

A suspect had been killed, most likely by police gunfire, said a police spokesman, Cpl. L’Jean McKneely. Two officers from the Baton Rouge police and an East Baton Rouge sheriff’s deputy were killed. One sheriff’s deputy remained in critical condition while two officers were in stable condition.

Police said initially that they were looking for other possible suspects, but the superintendent of the Louisiana State Police, Col. Michael Edmonson, said at a news conference that the person who shot and killed the officers had been shot and killed at the scene.

“There is not at active shooter scenario in Baton Rouge,” said Colonel Edmonson, whose agency was taking the lead on the investigation, assisted by local and federal law enforcement officials.

The officials also did not address whether the police were targeted specifically or whether they were shot trying to intervene during a crime. However, they acknowledged the tensions in the country this month surrounding the killings of black men by police officers, and the retaliatory violence directed at law enforcement.

“The violence, the hatred just has to stop,” said Gov. John Bel Edwards of Louisiana.

Violence against law enforcement, he added, “doesn’t address any injustice, perceived or real. It is just an injustice in and of itself.”

Sunday’s shooting is the latest episode in a month of violence and extraordinary racial tension in the country, and took place after Baton Rouge officers on July 5 fatally shot Alton B. Sterling, a black man who was selling CDs outside a convenience store. The night after Mr. Sterling was killed, a black man was killed by the police during a traffic stop in a St. Paul suburb, and then the next night, five police officers were killed by a gunman in Dallas who said he wanted to kill police officers, particularly white officers.

Details remained sketchy on Sunday afternoon, and it was unclear whether the attack had been planned or happened during another crime.

The shooting was met here with disbelief. “It’s just crazy; we should be worried about what we’re going to leave our kids 20, 30 years from now,” said Bryce Butler, 27, a cook at the Rum House restaurant, which is near the shooting scene. “I think no one should be victimized, cops or anyone.”

“It shouldn’t have happened,” said Dan Williams, 46, an electrician. “Both incidents were sad,” he said, referring to Mr. Sterling’s death and Sunday’s shooting. He anticipates more violence.

Interactive Feature | Live Updates: Baton Rouge Police Officers Shot

Carol D. Powell Lexing, a lawyer for the Sterling family, said in an interview that the family did not condone the shooting of officers and that protesting police misconduct was “not all-out war on the entire Police Department.”

“No one condones violence on anyone, and we certainly don’t condone the shootings that have gone forth in Dallas and now in Baton Rouge,” she said. “It saddens our heart that we are even back to having this conversation again, having a repeat, having some type of copycat out there. We ask that there be no more copycats.”

The police in Baton Rouge had in recent days announced that they were investigating a plot by four people to shoot at police officers, and they cited the threat to explain the heavy police presence at protests.

The police said a 17-year-old was arrested after running from a burglary of the Cash American Pawn Shop in Baton Rouge. He and three others, including a 12-year-old arrested on Friday, were believed to have broken into the pawnshop through the roof. It was unclear whether the burglary was in any way connected to Sunday’s shooting.

The police chief, Carl Dabadie Jr., told reporters at the time that the 17-year-old had told the police “that the reason the burglary was being done was to harm police officers.”

The explanation, however, was met with skepticism on social media sites, where many people believed the report was concocted by the police to justify their militarized response to the protest.

“That was bull, it was a scare tactic to calm things down,” Arthur Reed, of Stop the Killing, the group that first released the video of Mr. Sterling’s shooting, said on Sunday. “And it worked. I ain’t going out there if people are going to be out there trying to kill police.”

The intense protests after Mr. Sterling’s shooting were beginning to lose steam. Sima Atri, a social justice lawyer who represented some of the protesters who were arrested last weekend, said earlier in the week that many protesters were too afraid to hit the streets after the authorities’ heavy-handed approach last weekend, which included nearly 200 arrests. (Nearly 100 charges were dropped Friday.)

A protest on Saturday afternoon had less than a dozen people (all of them white), huddled on the side of the road under a tent to escape the blazing sun, flashing signs at passing cars. Once the sun went down, the crowd grew to about 125, most of them white, Mr. Reed said. Corporal McKneely said it was unclear if the shooting on Sunday was connected to the protests. “We are not sure of anything right now,” he said.

The episode on Sunday began when the police received reports of an individual walking with an assault rifle near the Hammond Aire Plaza shopping center on Airline Highway. Then around 8:30 a.m., gunfire erupted.

Mark Clements, who lives near the shopping center, said he was in his backyard when he heard shots ring out. “I heard probably 10 to 12 gunshots go off,” he said in a telephone interview. “We heard a bunch of sirens and choppers and everything since then.”

On the Police Department’s dispatch radio, a voice could be heard shouting: “Shots fired! Officer down! Shots fired. Officer down! Got a city officer down.”

Officers from both the East Baton Rouge Sheriff’s Office and the Baton Rouge Police Department were struck by bullets, the authorities said.

Trooper Cedrick Ross with the Louisiana State Police said in a brief phone interview that law enforcement officials were still working on gathering information on the identification and description of the suspect. He said that the only information that was “somewhat confirmed” was that the suspect was a black male who had been wearing a ski mask.

Wounded officers were taken to Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center, which was swarmed with police officers on Sunday afternoon.

Kelly Zimmerman, a hospital spokeswoman, said five law enforcement officers had been admitted there, three of whom had died from their wounds. One person was listed in critical condition, and another was listed in fair condition, she said. Rebekah Maricelli, a spokeswoman with Baton Rouge General Medical Hospital, said in an interview that a sixth person, whom she described as a police officer, had been admitted to the hospital with nonlife-threatening injuries.

The White House said President Obama had been briefed and that federal officials were in touch with the Baton Rouge authorities. He was scheduled to deliver remarks later Sunday.

“I condemn, in the strongest sense of the word, the attack on law enforcement in Baton Rouge,” Mr. Obama said in a statement. “For the second time in two weeks, police officers who put their lives on the line for ours every day were doing their job when they were killed in a cowardly and reprehensible assault. These are attacks on public servants, on the rule of law, and on civilized society, and they have to stop.”

He added: “We may not yet know the motives for this attack, but I want to be clear: there is no justification for violence against law enforcement. None. These attacks are the work of cowards who speak for no one. They right no wrongs. They advance no causes.”

In a statement, Gov. John Bel Edwards of Louisiana scheduled a 3 p.m. Eastern news conference to discuss the shooting.

“This is an unspeakable and unjustified attack on all of us at a time when we need unity and healing,” the governor said in a statement. “Rest assured, every resource available to the State of Louisiana will be used to ensure the perpetrators are swiftly brought to justice.”

Louisiana has lately taken a harder line to defend its police officers, who this year will become a protected class under the state’s hate crimes law.

“I’ve read various accounts of people who I would say were employing a deliberate campaign to terrorize our officers,” State Representative Lance Harris, a Republican and the author of the proposal, said this year. “I just wanted to give an extra level of protection to the people who protect us.”

Mr. Harris’s proposal, which the Legislature overwhelmingly approved and Mr. Edwards signed in May, will make it a hate crime to select a victim “because of actual or perceived employment as a law enforcement officer, firefighter or emergency medical services personnel.”

The killing of police officers in Baton Rouge on Sunday placed another wrinkle in the work of activists who were already being criticized as the impetus for the attack in Dallas. Now, even as it remained unclear what caused the shooting in Baton Rouge, questions were already surfacing about whether a larger anti-police climate had anything to do with it.

Cat Brooks, the co-founder of the Anti Police-Terror Project, cautioned against criticizing activists in the wake of Sunday’s killing of police officers in Baton Rouge.

“I think anytime that there’s a loss of life — black, white, police officer, otherwise — it’s cause for us to take a moment and be sad about that life,” she said. “And I think we have to be really careful about where these shootings of police officers steer the conversation. I think it’s absurd to insinuate that a movement that is doing nothing more than demanding that the war on black life come to an end is in any way responsible for these police officers getting shot.”

The shooting in Baton Rouge took place as protesters and Republicans were arriving in Cleveland for the Republican National Convention. Steve Thacker, 57, of Westlake, Ohio, stood in Cleveland’s Public Square on Sunday holding a semiautomatic AR-15-style assault rifle as news broke that several officers had been killed in Baton Rouge.

After the shooting in Dallas, Stephen Loomis, the president of the Cleveland Police Patrolmen’s Association, urged people not to take their guns anywhere near Cleveland’s downtown during the convention because officers were already in a “heightened state.”

When asked about Mr. Loomis’s comments and the Baton Rouge shooting, Mr. Thacker said despite the shooting, he wanted to make a statement and show that people can continue to openly carry their weapons.

“I pose no threat to anyone. I’m an American citizen. I’ve never been in trouble for anything,” said Mr. Thacker, an information technology engineer. “This is my time to come out and put my two cents worth in, albeit that it is a very strong statement.”

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